Ujjain is situated on a unique geographical location 

from where tropic of cancer passes

It is the 'Greenwich Mean Time'of India for Panchang.

Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kashi, Kaanchi,

Avantika, Dwarawati saptashiav mokshdayaka.

Glimpses 

The early history of Ujjain is shrouded in the Puranic traditions. According to a tradition, Yadu warriors Krishna and Balarama came to Ujjain to learn various sciences as the disciples of the great Guru Sandipani. The epic Mahabharata narrates that two warriors kings of Ujjain Vinda and Anuvinda took part in the bharata were killed fighting against the Pandavas. Excavations conducted at Garh area in Ujjain reveal the existence of Ujjain in 7th, 6th century AD. During this period in 6th century BC Ujjain was the capital of Avanti Janapada. 

 

Mahakaleshwar Kund

At that time there had been sixteen such janpadas in North India in which Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti had been most prominent. There had been a shift in the ruling dynasty which brought an ambitious here Chanda Pradyota in power. During the reign of one of his successors, a peoples revolt against his tyrannical rule was witnessed in Ujjain, first of its kind in India.   

In ancient times Ujjain was a key political and trade centre of Koshambi-Paithan route joining North and South India via Vidisha, Govard, Ujjain and Mahishmati.                         

During Mauryan period, Ujjain had been the headquarters of Avanti province. The great emperor Chandragupta in the Jaina ascetic forms visited Ujjain en-route to Karnataka. His grandson Ashok was appointed as Governor of Ujjain by Mauryan emperor Bindusara. His son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra were born in Ujjain who later on whole-heartedly propagated the Buddhism in Ceylon.

In 1st century BC, Ujjain witnessed the scene of struggle between the local Gardabhillas and the alien synthians. Ultimately, The warrior king Vikramaditya repulsed the alien invasion and to commemorate the event, an era now know as Vikram era, was started. It is said that king of Vikram of Ujjaiyni was a brave, courageous and a just ruler. He was a patron of scholars and the learned, well-versed in various sciences. Nine great such authorities, popularly known as Nava-ratnas (Nine0gems) adorned his court. These had been Dhanvantri, Ksapanaka, Amarasingha, Shanku, Vaitala-Bhatta, Ghata Karpara, Kalidasa, Varahmihar and Vararuchi, Kalidasa has been a post and dramatist of the world fame. Similarly Varahamihar was a great astrologer and mathematician.  

The "Periplus of the Erthrean Sea" an account of an unknown Greek them residing in Egypt, made a voyage to India, sometimes in first AD. The periplus talks of Ozen (Ujjain) in the east of Barygaza (Bhrigukachchha in ancient times, now Broaches which fed all commodities to trade like Onyx, Porcelain, fine muslins, spikenard, castes godellium to this important part and to other parts of India. The articles of export to the western world such as precious stones and pearls, scents, spices, perfumes, silks and muslin etc. reached the part of Bhrigukachchha from the remote North through Ujjain which was connected with it by land - route.

In second century AD the Kardamaka branch of the Shakes emerged as the Kshatrapas of Ujjain Chashtan, Rudradaman and many other rulers ruled in Ujjain upto 4th C AD, When there power was finally extinguished by the Guptas in the eastern and the Aulikaras in the Western Malwa. During the Guptas Aulikaras age, as the contemporary shasta dramas tell us Ujjain had been a remarkable cosmopolitan trade centre after 6th C AD.

Ujjain remained under the political sway of the Kalachuris the Maritrakas, the later Guptas the Pushyabhutis, the Pratiharas and the Rasthrakutas ultimately in the later part of 10th C AD, the parmaras feudal of Malwa overthrew the yoke of their Rastrakuta overloads and attained independence. Siyaka II, Vakpti Munja, Sindhuraja, Bhojadeva, Udayadutya, Naravarma had been the Paramara rulers of Malwa, Ujjain and Dhar being the capital towns. These rulers particularly Bhija had been the patrons of Literature, arts and architecture. The Paramaraspower crumbled down as a result of the Muslims invasions. The invasion of Ujjain in 1235 AD the Delhi sultan IItumishled the destruction of the great shrine mahakala and other religious and cultural centres of Ujjain. After the Khilji invasion of Malwa in the first decade of 14th C AD the parmara power was finally extinguished. In the year 1401 Dilwarkhan Gauri, the sultan of Malwasnatched this region from the later Tughlakas and established an independent Sultanat of Malwa with its headquarters at Mandu. Thereafter Khilji and Afghan dynasties ruled over Malwa respectively with brief Gujarat and Mughal interpolation. In 1562 AD the great Mughal emperor Akbar annexed Malwa was declared as province with its headquarter at Ujjain about 1730 mrathas under the Peshwas captured Malwa from the later Mughals and science 1741, the Peshwas emerged as de jure overlords of Malwa with Scindia, Holkar and Pawar as their ruling representatives. Ramoji and Mahadji had been the first two prominent Shide rulers of Ujjain. In 1810 the capital of Shinde state was shifted to Gwalior, Ujjain remained as a prominent district.

In the pre independence era Ujjain witnessed the scenes of socio cultural rejuvenation, industrial and commercial growth on modern pattern and the struggle for the freedom. In 1948 the Shinde regime came to an end as the Gwalior state merged into the newly formed Madhya Bharat. Presently, Ujjain is a Commissionary and district headquarter in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

      Facts
  • One of the 12 jyotirlingas in India, the lingam at the Mahakal is believed to be swayambhu (born of itself) deriving currents of power (shakti) from within itself as against the other images and lingams which are ritually established and invested with mantra-shakti.

  • The idol of Mahakaleshwar is known to be Dakshinamurti, facing the south. This is a unique feature upheld by tantric traditions to be found only in Mahakaleshwar among the 12 Jyotirlingas. The idol of Omkareshwar Shiva is consecrated in the sanctum above the Mahakal shrine. The images of Ganesh, Parvati and Karttikeya are installed in the west, north and east of the sanctum sanctorum. To the south is the image of Nandi. The idol of Nagchandreshwar on the third story is open for darshan only on the day of Nagpanchmi.

  • On the day of Mahashivaratri, a huge fair is held near the temple and worship goes on through the night.

  • Great poets like Ved Vyas and Kalidas lauded the river Kshipra and the city of Ujjain in their literary work.

  • Loard Krishna, his brother and his friend Sudama received their education living with Maharshi Sandipani in Ujjain.

  • Ashoka, the great had been here for 11 years and received his education here.

  • Ujjain witnessed the victory of Vikramaditya over the foreign invader Shaks and the commencement of 'Vikram Samvatsar' 2061years ago. Today, 'Vikram Samvstsar' is the oldest calendar in the Ujjain.

  • Ujjain was the capital of renowned king Vikramaditya. His brother Bhrarthari became a dicipline of guru Gorkha Nath of 'Nath Sampraday' and renounced the world and meditated in the cave.

  • It is believed that there was once a majestic Sun temple at the Kalia Deh site. The Avanti-Mahatmya of the Skanda Purana has recorded a description of the Sun Temple and two tanks, the Surya Kunda and the Brahma Kunda. People from nearby villages have a ritual dip in the Surya Kunda even today. Remains of the old temple are found scattered all over this area.

  • A fragmented inscription of this place records the building of the palace in 1458, in the time of Mahmud Khilji. The story goes that the tanks were constructed all around to keep the temperature very low by Sultan Nasiruddin Khilji, the Sultan of Malwa in the 16th century, because he was in the habit of taking mercury which is very injurious to health.

  • As a great religious center, Ujjain ranks equal to Benaras, Gaya and Kanchi. Saivism, Vaishnavism and their various cults and sects, Jainism and Buddhism, have found a niche in this catholic city. The Avanti Khanda of the Skanda Purana mentions innumerable temples consecrated to Shakti and her various forms. The Siddha and the Natha cults which were offshoots of Tantricism, also flourished in Ujjain.